Self-Esteem, Personality Traits and Suicidal Ideations in Young Adults

Journal:
July-December 2014 Volume 11(2)

Original Article

Author(s):
& Humaira Yasmin, Naila Batool, Muhammad Naveed Riaz, Shazia Kousar, Muhammad Akram Riaz
Page No:
29

SELF-ESTEEM, PERSONALITY TRAITS AND SUICIDAL IDEATIONS IN YOUNG ADULTS

Muhammad Akram Riaz1, Shazia Kousar2, Muhammad Naveed Riaz3, Naila Batool4, & Humaira Yasmin5

 

1Lecturer, Department of Psychology, International Islamic University, Islamabad

2Student, Department of Psychology, Royal Group of Colleges, Gujranwala

3Lecturer, Department of Psychology, University of Haripur, Haripur

4Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Haripur, Haripur

5Student, Department of Psychology, University of Haripur, Haripur

 

Corresponding author: Muhammad Akram Riaz1 Department of Psychology, International Islamic University Islamabad

E-mail: akramriaz313@gmail.com, Cell: +92-3339810977

 

ABSTRACT

 

OBJECTIVES

The research examines the relationship between self-esteem, personality traits and suicidal ideations among young adults. Additionally the study examined suicidal ideations with reference to gender.

 

DESIGN

Cross sectional study

 

PLACE & DURATION OF STUDY

The study was completed in different colleges of Abbottabad, Islamabad and Gujranwala from January 2013 to February 2014.

 

METHODOLOGY

Sample of 110 young adults was taken from different government colleges of Abbottabad, Islamabad and Gujranwala with equal number of males and females. Correlation and independent sample t-test were applied to analyze the data.

 

RESULTS

Self-esteem was negatively correlated with Suicidal ideation. Extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness were positively correlated with Suicidal ideation whereas Neuroticism was negatively correlated with suicidal ideation. Suicidal ideation was higher among males as compared with females.

 

CONCLUSION

The present research provides significant association of self-esteem and personality traits with reference to suicidal ideations among young adults.

 

KEYWORDS

Self-esteem; personality traits, suicidal ideations

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Suicide ideation involves a broad variety of language, from the desire to die to thoughts about full strategy to entrust suicide.1 Suicide and suicidal performance has extended been regarded as a severe community difficulty. Internationally there is one finished suicide in 40 seconds. Suicide is uncommon previous to the age of 12, while teenage and young adulthood symbols the first important go up in the speed of suicide.2 In Pakistan suicidal rate increased with the passage of time due to social prejudice, unemployment, terrorism, poverty and many other reasons. It is one of the less researched areas in the indigenous context.3 School experiences are fun and pose significant position in determining their developmental trajectories.4

Previous research found a positive meaningful relationship between neuroticism with guilt feeling and self-destruction and a negative meaningful relationship between conscientiousness with guilt feeling, self-destruction, isolation and depression. Extraversion had a negative relationship with isolation, inertia, hopelessness and inferiority openness had a negative relationship with hopelessness and inferiority, too. Furthermore, there was a negative significance relationship between extraversion and conscientiousness with total score of suicidal ideations.5 Decreased self-esteem is not considerably associated to suicidal ideation, may be since it is a danger issue more connected with suicidal performance. This consequence could start with depressive symptoms associated to Suicidal ideation, which in turn could have an effect on self-esteem, and later activate suicidal performance.6 Gender differences in self-esteem suggests that male young adults have higher self-esteem than female young adults.7 Over half of the women with low self-esteems have senior suicidal ideation and depressive symptomatology than men, with major differences only in the middle of young adults.6 On the basis of literature the hypotheses of the study were

 

1.   There is negative relationship between self-esteem and suicidal ideation among young adults.

2.   There is negative relationship between extraversion, openness to experience, conscientiousness, agreeableness and suicidal ideation, and positive relationship between neuroticism and suicidal ideation among young adults.

3.   Self-esteem and suicidal ideation will be higher among males as compared with females.

 

 

METHOD

 

Participants

The sample of present study was consisted of 110 young adults. Both male (n = 55) and female (n = 55) were included in the sample. Age range of young adults was 19- 23 years. 

 

Instruments

 

            [1] Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used to measure self-esteem.8 It contains 10 items answered on a 4-point Liker-type scale (strongly disagree, disagree, agree, strongly agree). [2] Big five personality inventory was used to measure self-esteem.9 It contains 44 items answered on a 5-point Liker-type scale (strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree strongly agree). [3] The Modified Scale for Suicide Ideation is a revised version of the Scale for Suicide Ideation.10 It contains 18 items answered on a 4-point Liker-type scale (very unsure, unsure of courage, quite sure, very sure).  The scale assesses suicide symptoms over the past year.

 

Procedure

 

             The participants were approached in their respective institutions to collect the information. Before collecting data the informed consent were taken from the young adults. They ensured to be confident, as the information obtained will be kept highly confidential on behalf of the researcher that their personal identities will not be revealed. Booklets containing tools were handed over them to fill in. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was use to analyze the data. Alpha reliability, correlation and t-statistics, were applied to evaluate the hypotheses of the study.

 

 

RESULTS

 

The reliability of all scales and subscales rage from .66 (i.e., agreeableness) to .86 (i.e., self-esteem) indicating satisfactory internal consistency and therefore all the scales and subscales were reliable for use (see table 1).

 Self-esteem was positively correlated with extraversion r(108) = -.90, p < .01, agreeableness r(108) = .18, p < .05, conscientiousness r(108) = .82, p < .01, and openness to experience r(108) = .82, p < .01 and was negatively correlated with neuroticism r(108) = -.19, p < .05 and suicidal ideation r(108) = -.23, p < .01.  Extraversion was positively correlated with agreeableness r(108) = .26, p < .01, conscientiousness r(108) = .20, p < .05, and openness to experience r(108) = .82, p < .05 and was negatively correlated with neuroticism r(108) = -.26, p < .05 and suicidal ideation r(108) = -.19, p < .05.  Agreeableness positively correlated with conscientiousness r(108) = .21, p < .05, and openness to experience r(108) = .42, p < .01 and was negatively correlated with neuroticism r(108) = -.36, p < .01 and suicidal ideation r(108) = -.28, p < .01.  Conscientiousness was positively correlated with openness to experience r(108) = .18, p < .05 and was negatively correlated with neuroticism r(108) = -.24, p < .01 and suicidal ideation r(108) = -.42, p < .01. Neuroticism was negatively correlated with openness to experience r(108) = -.22, p < .01 and was positively correlated with r(108) = -.21, p < .05. Openness negatively correlated with suicidal ideation r(108) = -.52, p < .01 (see table 2)

Female were significantly higher on neuroticism t(108) = 2.24, p < .05 whereas male were higher on self-esteem t(108) = 2.49, p < .01, extroversion t(108) = 2.93, p < .01, and suicidal ideation t(108) = 2.92, p < .01 (see table 3)

 

 

Table: 1

Alpha reliability for all study variables (N =110)

Scale/subscales

Items

Α

Self-esteem 

10

.86

Extraversion

8

.76

Agreeableness

7

.66

Conscientiousness

9

.75

Openness to experience

10

.85

Neuroticism

8

.67

Suicidal ideation

18

.75

          

                      

 

Table: 2

Correlation between all Study Variables (N =110)

Variables

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1.      Self-esteem

-

.90**

.18*

.82**

-.19*

.28**

-.23*

2.      Extraversion

 

-

.26**

.20*

-.26**

.18*

-.19*

3.      Agreeableness

 

 

-

.21*

-.36**

.42**

-.28**

4.      Conscientiousness

 

 

 

-

-.24*

.18*

-.42**

5.      Neuroticism

 

 

 

 

-

-.22*

.21*

6.      Openness to experience